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Frequently Asked Questions

Does protein read-through rate increase under stress?

First, the read-through rate is known to increase under some stresses, which could be advantageous when new proteins able to cope with the stresses are needed [ 14, 15 ].

Does stop-codon read-through alter the function of a protein?

Because stop-codon read-through extends the C-terminus of a protein, it can alter the protein function, which could be beneficial in some cases. For instance, stop-codon read-through is a common strategy of viruses to encode proteins with an extended C-terminus [ 2 ].

How is mRNA read during translation?

During translation, which is the second major step in gene expression, the mRNA is "read" according to the genetic code, which relates the DNA sequence to the amino acid sequence in proteins (Figure 2). Each group of three bases in mRNA constitutes a codon, and each codon specifies a particular amino acid (hence, it is a triplet code ).

How are genes expressed from DNA to mRNA to protein?

Translation: DNA to mRNA to Protein. In the simplest sense, expressing a gene means manufacturing its corresponding protein, and this multilayered process has two major steps. In the first step, the information in DNA is transferred to a messenger RNA ( mRNA) molecule by way of a process called transcription.

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